CCR5 DELTA 32
The CCR5 Delta 32 installation is a visual explanation of a DNA deletion mutation.
The format of the artwork is two tall (3m) banners. Each banner is hand painted with two different sequences, that of the normal CCR5 sequence and CCR5 Delta 32 mutation sequence.
Looking at only the right banner, we see the normal CCR5 (left half of each strand) sequence laid next to the Delta 32 sequence in situ. See how the two sequences are identical for the first half but then they become very different in the entire latter half.
The left banner shows how these two sequences are different by inserting a gap where the deletion occurs. The left banner illustrates that the two sequences are almost identical with the exception of 32 bases.
Understanding how two variants differ is an important aspect of genetic research. It gives insight into the evolution of a poplulation, it provides greater understanding of diseases, and it can be utilized for developing therapies.
Reading the DNA Sequence
It is possible to read the DNA sequences* from the artwork using the colour key. In each banner, the normal CCR5 is on the left half of each column and the Delta 32 variant is on the right half. Each sequence runs top to bottom, left to right.
CCR5 and HIV
The CCR5 gene produces the CCR5 protein which normally inserts into the cell membrane. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects the human cell by attaching to 2 cell membrane proteins, CD4 and CCR5. With CCR5 Delta 32, the resultant protein is truncated and HIV is not able to properly attach to the host cell. So people who have the mutant gene might be exposed to HIV but they are resistant to developing AIDS because the virus is unable to infect them.
In 2009, scientists in Berlin reported the first, and only, individual to be cured of HIV. The treatment involved a bone marrow transplant from a donor with the CCR5 Delta 32 mutation.
CCR5 Delta 32 and Evolution
It is believed that the CCR5 Delta 32 mutation first appeared about 2200 years ago. It was a one time mutation in Northern Europe amongst the Viking population. Those who had the mutation were protected from infection by viruses such as small pox, and survived plagues better than those with the normal CCR5 gene. Today, about 18% of the population in Northern Europe are resistant or immune to HIV infection because they are descendants of that Viking population and they have the CCR5 Delta 32 gene.
Further on-line reading.
"Blocking HIV's Attack" by Carl June and Bruce Levine. Scientific American (March 2012), 306, 54-59 Published online: 14 February 2012 | doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0312-54 www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v306/n3/full/scientificamerican0312-54.html
* Correction: Two years after completing this piece, I noticed 2 of the tiles are the wrong colour. I could choose to be horrified but I would rather see it as a bit of random mutation. Contact me if you would like to know where the error is located.